Thursday, September 17, 2020

Wild Free and Happy Bibliography

[Note: This is the bibliography for the rough draft of a far from finished new book, Wild, Free, & Happy.  The information is current as of 7 April 2021.  The URLs for links have not been verified.  Links to online documents tend to have limited lifespans.  Some links below might be extinct.  Many may be accessible via the Internet Wayback Machine.  Copy the dead URL, and take it to https://web.archive.org.  Good luck!]

Aalen, Frederick H. A., Man and the Landscape in Ireland, Academic Press, London, 1978.

Adam of Bremen, History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen, Columbia University Press, New York, 1959. 

Alley, William M., and Rosemarie Alley, Too Hot to Touch, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2013.

Anderson, Rasmus Björn, Norse Mythology, 1875, Reprint, S. C. Griggs and Company, Chicago, 1884.

Anthony, David W., The Horse the Wheel and Language, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2007.

Araujo, Bernardo, et al., “Bigger kill than chill…,” Quaternary International, November 2015.

Ashworth, William, The Late Great Lakes, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, 1986.

Axtell, James, The European and the Indian, Oxford University Press, New York, 1981.

Bailes, Kendall E., Environmental History, University Press of America, New York, 1985.

Bain, Marc, “If your clothes aren’t already made out of plastic, they will be,” Quartz (qz.com), 5 June 2015.

Bartlett, Albert, The Essential Exponential!, Center for Science, Mathematics & Computer Education, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 2004.  Also: www.albartlett.org

Basalla, George, The Evolution of Technology, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1988.

Basso, Keith H., Wisdom Sits in Places, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1996.

BBC, Bonobo: Missing in Action, 2006 (Rebroadcast by NOVA as The Last Great Ape in 2007).

BBC, Conquest of the Parasites, Films Media Group, New York, 1984.

Beckwith, Christopher, Empires of the Silk Road, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2009.

Bennett, Wendell C., and Robert M. Zingg, The Tarahumara: An Indian Tribe of Northern Mexico, 1935, Reprint, The Rio Grand Press, Glorieta, New Mexico, 1976.

Blythe, Ronald, Akenfield: Portrait of an English Village, 1969, Reprint, Akadine Press, Pleasantville, New York, 2000.

Boehm, Christopher, Hierarchy in the Forest, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1999.

Bolster, W. Jeffrey, The Mortal Sea, Belknap Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2012.

Bourne, Joel K., The End of Plenty: The Race to Feed A Crowded World, W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2015.

Brain, Charles Kimberlin, Hunters or the Hunted?, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1981.

Brazil, Mark, “How Dung Beetles Came to Save Australia,” The Japan Times, May 3, 2001.

Bright, Michael, Man-Eaters, St. Martin’s Paperbacks, New York, 2002.

Broadbent, Noel, Lapps and Labyrinths: Saami Prehistory, Colonization, and Cultural Resilience, Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington, D.C., 2010.

Brody, Hugh, The Other Side of Eden, North Point Press, New York, 2001.

Brown, Lester R., State of the World 1990, W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 1990.

Brown, Tom, Jr., Grandfather, Berkley Books, New York, 1993.

Brown, Tom, Jr., The Tracker, Berkley Publishing Group, New York, 1979.

Brown, Tom, Jr., The Vision, Berkley Books, New York, 1988.

Brown, Tom, Jr., Tom Brown’s Field Guide to Wilderness Survival, Berkley Books, New York, 1983.

Bruns, H. Arnold, “Southern Corn Leaf Blight,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 109, Issue 4, 2017.

Caesar, Julius, The Gallic Wars, London MacMillan, London, 1908.  Translated by Thomas Rice Holmes.

Cambrensis, Giraldus, The Historical Works of Giraldus Cambrensis, George Bell & Sons, London, 1905.

Carrington, Damian, “Plummeting Insect Numbers Threaten Collapse of Nature,” The Guardian, February 10, 2019.

Catlin, George, Letters and notes on the manners, customs, and conditions of the North American Indians, 2 vols, Dover Publications, New York, 1973.

Catton, William R., Bottleneck: Humanity’s Impending Impasse, Xlibris Corporation, USA, 2009.

Catton, William R., Overshoot: The Ecological Basis of Revolutionary Change, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1980.

Chagnon, Napoleon A., Yanomamö, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 1968.

Chappell, Sally A., Cahokia: Mirror of the Cosmos, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2002.

Chatwin, Bruce, The Songlines, Penguin Books, New York, 1987.

Cheney, Dorothy L., and Robert M. Seyfarth, Baboon Metaphysics, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2007.

Clugston, Christopher O., Scarcity: Humanity’s Final Chapter?, Booklocker.com, Port Charlotte, Florida, 2012.

Cohen, Mark Nathan, Health & the Rise of Civilization, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1989.

Cohen, Mark Nathan, The Food Crisis in Prehistory: Overpopulation and the Origins of Agriculture, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1977.

Colapinto, John, “The Interpreter,” (Dan Everett), The New Yorker, April 16, 2007.  LINK

Collier, Richard, The Plague of the Spanish Lady, Atheneum, New York, 1974.

Coolidge, Frederick L., and Thomas Wynn, The Rise of Homo Sapiens: The Evolution of Modern Thinking, Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, U.K., 2009.

Coon, Carleton S., The Hunting Peoples, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1971.

Cotlow, Lewis, In Search of the Primitive, Little, Brown, and Company, Boston, 1966.

Crawford, John, “What If the World’s Soil Runs Out?,” Time, 14 December, 2012  LINK

Cronon, William, Changes in the Land, Hill and Wang, New York, 1983.

Crosby, Alfred W., Children of the Sun: A History of Humanity’s Unappeasable Appetite for Energy, W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2006.

Crosby, Alfred W., Ecological Imperialism: the Biological Expansion of Europe 900–1900, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1986.

Crosby, Alfred W., Germs, Seeds, and Animals, M. E. Sharpe, Armonk, New York, 1994. 

Crosby, Alfred W., Throwing Fire: Projectile Technology Through History, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2010.

Cunliffe, Barry, By Steppe, Desert, and Ocean: The Birth of Eurasia, Oxford University Press, New York, 2015.

Cunliffe, Barry, Europe Between the Oceans: 9000 BC – AD 1000, Yale University Press, New Haven, 2008.

Cunliffe, Barry, Wessex to A.D. 1000, Longman, London, 1993.

Dale, Tom, and Vernon Gill Carter, Topsoil and Civilization, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1955.

Darwin, Charles, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, Vol. 1, D. Appleton and Company, New York, 1871.

Davis, Leslie B., and Brian O. K. Reeves, editors, Hunters of the Recent Past, Unwin Hyman, London, 1990.

Davis, Mike, Late Victorian Holocausts, Verso, New York, 2001.

Davis, Wade, “On Ecological Amnesia,” The Tyee (www.thetyee.ca), November 8, 2018.

deMenocal, Peter B., “Climate and Human Evolution,” Science, Vol 331, February 4, 2011, pp. 540-542.

Devall, Bill, editor, Clearcut: The Tragedy of Industrial Forestry, Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, 1993.

Diamond, Jared, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, Viking, New York, 2005.

Diamond, Jared, “Evolution, consequences and future of plant and animal domestication,” Nature, 418, 700-707 (8 August 2002) | doi:10.1038/nature01019  LINK

Diamond, Jared, Guns, Germs, and Steel, W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 1997.

Diamond, Jared, The Third Chimpanzee, Harper Collins, New York, 1992.

Diamond, Jared, The World Until Yesterday, Viking, New York, 2012.

Diamond, Jared, “The Worst Mistake In The History Of The Human Race,” Discover, May 1987.  LINK.

Diaz, Natalie, “Manhattan is a Lenape Word,” NPR Weekend Edition, March 1, 2020.  LINK

Dilworth, Craig, Too Smart For Our Own Good, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2010.

Dobak, William A., “Killing the Canadian Buffalo: 1821-1881,” Western Historical Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Spring, 1996), pp. 33-52.

Dotterweich, Markus, “The History of Human-Induced Soil Erosion,” Geomorphology, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.07.021

Doucleff, Michaeleen, “Anthrax Outbreak in Russia,” NPR Morning Edition, August 3, 2016.

Dowd, Michael, “God: Personification ≠ Person,” Huffpost, June 9, 2013.  LINK

Driver, Harold E., Indians of North America, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1961.

Dudman, Clare, “Interview With Daniel Everett,” November 2008.  LINK

Eamer, Claire, “No Wool, No Vikings,” Hakai Magazine, February 23, 2016.

Earth Policy Institute, “Growing Goat Herds Signal Global Grassland Decline,” Grist, June 21, 2011.

Edmeades, Baz, Megafauna, 2013, unpublished manuscript, www.megafauna.com (access via the Internet Archive Wayback Machine).

Edmeades, Baz, “Paul S. Martin Tribute,” www.megafauna.com

Ehrlich, Anne H., and Paul R. Ehrlich, Earth, Franklin Watts, New York, 1987.

Ehrlich, Paul R., and Anne H. Ehrlich, The Dominant Animal, Island Press, Washington, 2008.

Ehrlich, Paul R., and Anne H. Ehrlich, The Population Explosion, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1990.

Ehrlich, Paul R., and John Harte, “Pessimism on the Food Front,” Sustainability, MDPI, 9 April 2018.  LINK

Epic of Gilgamesh LINK

Everett, Daniel, Don’t Sleep: There are Snakes, Pantheon Books, New York, 2008.

Everett, Daniel, “Seek Out Strangers,” The Chronicle for Higher Education, April 30, 2017.  LINK

Everett, Daniel, “Wisdom from Strangers,” TEDxPenn, June 15, 2017.  LINK

Fagan, Brian, Cro-Magnon, Bloomsbury Press, New York, 2010.

Fagan, Brian, The Little Ice Age, Basic Books, New York, 2000.

Fairlie, Simon, “A Short History of Enclosure in Britain,” The Land, Summer 2009.

Fairlie, Simon, Meat: A Benign Extravagance, Chelsea Green, White River Junction, Vermont, 2010.

Farb, Peter, Man’s Rise to Civilization, E. P. Dutton & Company, New York, 1968.

Fernandez, Fernando A. S., “Human Dispersal and Late Quaternary Megafaunal Extinctions: the Role of the Americas in the Global Puzzle,” July 2016.  LINK

Finlayson, Clive, The Humans Who Went Extinct, Oxford University Press, New York, 2009.

Finlayson, Clive, The Smart Neanderthal, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2019.

Flannery, Tim, Here on Earth, Atlantic Monthly Press, New York, 2010.

Flannery, Tim, “Megafauna Extinction,” The Science Show, ABC Radio National, Sydney, September 8, 2001.  LINK

Flannery, Tim, The Eternal Frontier, Atlantic Monthly Press, New York, 2001.

Flannery, Tim, The Future Eaters, George Braziller, New York, 1995.

Flores, Dan, American Serengeti: The Last Big Animals of the Great Plains, University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, 2016.

Flores, Dan, The Natural West, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 2001.

Forbes, Jack D., Columbus and Other Cannibals, Seven Stories Press, New York, 2008.

Frankel, Jeremy, “Crisis on the High Plains: The Loss of America’s Largest Aquifer: the Ogallala,” University of Denver Water Law Review, May 17, 2018.

Fraser, Evan D. G., and Andrew Rimas, Empires of Food, Free Press, New York, 2010.

Freuchen, Peter, Arctic Adventure, 1935, Reprint, Lyons Press, Guilford, Connecticut, 2002.

Freuchen, Peter, Book of the Eskimos, World Publishing Company, Cleveland, 1961.

Galdikas, Biruté Mary, Born to Be Wild, Warner Brothers Pictures, Burbank, California, 2011.

Gammage, Bill, The Biggest Estate on Earth, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 2011.

Garrett, Laurie, The Coming Plague, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1994.

Gesner, Conrad, Historiae Animalium, Christoffel Froschower, Zurich, 1602.

Godreche, Dominique, “The Amazon’s Pirahã People’s Secret to Happiness,” Indian Country Today, June 25, 2012.  LINK

González-Arqueros, M. Lourdes, et al., “Human Impact on Natural Systems…,” Catena, July 2018.

Gordon Anita, and David Suzuki, It’s a Matter of Survival, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1991.

Gowdy, John, “Our hunter-gatherer future: Climate change, agriculture and uncivilization,” Science Direct, Futures 115 (2020) 102488.  LINK

Grammaticus, Saxo, The First Nine Books of Danish History, 1514, Reprint, David Nutt, London, 1894.  LINK

Gray, John, Straw Dogs: Thoughts on Humans and Other Animals, Granta Books, London, 2003.

Gray, Peter, “Play as a Foundation for Hunter-Gatherer Social Existence,” American Journal of Play, Spring 2009, pp. 476-522.  LINK

Greer, John Michael, The Long Descent, New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, BC, Canada, 2008.

Greer, John Michael, “Waiting for the Millennium,” Archdruid Report Mirror, June 2017. (Part 1) (Part 2)

Greger, Michael, M.D., Bird Flu: A Virus of Our Own Hatching, Lantern Books, New York, 2006.

Griffiths, Jay, A Country Called Childhood, Counterpoint, Berkeley, 2014.

Griffiths, Jay, Wild: An Elemental Journey, Jeremy P. Tarcher, New York, 2006.

Grimm, Jacob, Teutonic Mythology, 4 vols, 1883, reprint, Peter Smith, Gloucester, Massachusetts, 1976.

Gundry, Steven R., Dr. Gundry’s Diet Evolution, Crown Publishers, New York, 2008.

Guerber, Hélène Adeline, Myths of Northern Lands, American Book Company, New York, 1895.

Gunther, John, Inside Africa, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1953.

Gwynne, Samuel C., Empire of the Summer Moon, Scribner, New York, 2010.

Hagens, Nate, “Economics for the Future,” Ecological Economics, 169 (2020) 106520.  LINK

Hagens, Nate, “No Matter Who Wins,” 2 November, 2020.  LINK

Hagens, Nate, “Where are We Going?” Resilience.org, 8 May 2018.  LINK

Haller, Dorothy L., “Bastardy and Baby Farming in Victorian England,” 1990.  LINK

Harari, Yuval Noah, Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind, Harper, New York, 2015.

Hardin, Garrett, Living Within Limits, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.

Hardin, Garrett, The Ostrich Factor: Our Population Myopia, Oxford University Press, New York, 1998.

Harner, Michael, “The Ecological Basis for Aztec Sacrifice,” American Ethnologist, May 1976.

Harris, Marvin, Cows, Pigs, Wars, and Witches, 1974, Reprint, Vintage Books, New York, 1989.

Harrison, Robert Pogue, Forests: The Shadow of Civilization, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1992.

Hart, Donna, and Robert W. Sussman, Man the Hunted, Westview Press, New York, 2005.

Harvey, Graham, The Forgiveness of Nature: The Story of Grass, Random House, London, 2001.

Hatfield, Jerry L., and John H. Prueger, “Temperature Extremes: Effect on Plant Growth and Development,” Weather and Climate Extremes, 10 (2015) 4-10.

Heinberg, Richard, Afterburn, New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, British Columbia, 2015.

Heinberg, Richard, Snake Oil, Post Carbon Institute, Santa Rosa, California, 2013.

Heinberg, Richard, The End of Growth, New Society, Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada, 2011.

Heinberg, Richard, The Food and Farming Transition, Post Carbon Institute, Sebastopol, California, 2009.  LINK

Heinrich, Bernd, Why We Run, Harper Collins, New York, 2002.

Hendrick, Burton J. “The Mastery of Pellagra,” The World’s Work: A History of Our Time, XXXI: 633–639, April 1916.

Hillel, Daniel, Out of the Earth, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1991.

Hillman, James, and Michael Ventura, We’ve Had a Hundred Years of Psychotherapy: And the World’s Getting Worse, Harper Collins, New York, 1992.

Hodges, Glenn, “America’s Forgotten City,” National Geographic, January 2010.

Hoebel, E. Adamson, The Cheyennes: Indians of the Great Plains, Holt Rinehart and Winston, New York, 2d ed., 1978.

Hoffman, D. L., et al., “U-Th dating of carbonate crusts reveals Neanderthal origin of Iberian cave art,” Science 359: 912–15, February 23, 2018.

Hoh, Erling, “Red alert for Yellow River,” SF Gate, 4 March 2002.  LINK

Holbrook, Stewart H., Burning an Empire, Macmillan Company, New York, 1945.

Hornaday, William, Our Vanishing Wildlife, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1913.

Hornaday, William, The Extermination of the American Bison, Government Printing Office, Washington, 1889.

Humphreys, Margaret, “Malaria in America,” Snowden, Frank and Richard Bucala, eds., The Global Challenge of Malaria, World Scientific Publishing, Hackensack, New Jersey, 2014.

Ingerman, Sandra, Soul Retrieval, Harper, San Francisco, 1991.

Iowa Association of Naturalists, Iowa Soils, Guthrie Center, Iowa, 1999.

Iverson, Peter, The Navajos, Chelsea House, New York, 1990.

Jackson, Wes, New Roots for Agriculture, 1980, Reprint, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 1985.

Jamail, Dahr, The End of Ice, The New Press, New York, 2019. 

Jarvis, Brooke, “The Insect Apocalypse is Here,” New York Times Magazine, November 27, 2018.

Jensen, Derrick, Lierre Keith, and Max Wilbert, Bright Green Lies, Monkfish Publishing, Rhinebeck, New York, 2021. 

Jensen, Derrick, Listening to the Land, Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, 1995.

Jensen, Derrick, The Myth of Human Supremacy, Seven Stories Press, New York, 2016.

Johnson, Joni E., “Life on the Baby Farm: Killing kids for cash,” Psychology Today, May 2013.

Johnson, Steven, The Ghost Map, Riverhead Books, New York, 2006.

Johnston, Basil, Ojibway Heritage, 1976, Reprint, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 1990.

Jordan, Paul, Neanderthal, Sutton Publishing, Stroud, Gloustershire, U.K., 1999.

Josephy, Alvin M., 500 Nations, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1994.

Jung, Carl Gustav, The Earth Has a Soul, edited by Meredith Sabini, North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, 2008.

Junger, Sebastian, Tribe: On Homecoming and Belonging, Twelve Books, New York, 2016.

Kane, Joe, Savages, Vintage Books, New York, 1996.

Kaplan, Jed O., et al, “The prehistoric and preindustrial deforestation of Europe,” Quaternary Science Reviews, 28 (2009) 3016–3034.  LINK and MAP

Keith, Lierre, The Vegetarian Myth, Flashpoint Press, Crescent City, California, 2009.

Kelekna, Pita, The Horse in Human History, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009.

Kellogg, Elizabeth A., “C4 Photosynthesis,” Current Biology, Vol 23. No 14, R594.

Kellum, Barbara A., “History of Infanticide in the Later Middle Ages,” History of Childhood Quarterly, vol 1, pp. 367-388, 1974.

Kimmerer, Robin Wall, Braiding Sweetgrass, Milkweed Editions, Minneapolis, 2013.

Kingsnorth, Paul, “Dark Ecology,” Orion Magazine, Jan/Feb 2013.  LINK

Kohl, Johann Georg, Kitchi-Gami: Life Among the Lake Superior Ojibway, 1860, Reprint, Minnesota Historical Society Press, St. Paul, 1985.

Kolbert, Elizabeth, The Sixth Extinction, Henry Holt and Company, New York, 2014.

Krech, Shepard, The Ecological Indian, W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 1999.

Kurtén, Björn, Pleistocene Mammals of Europe, Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago, 1968.

Lame Deer, John, and Richard Erdoes, Lame Deer: Seeker of Visions, 1972, Reprint, Washington Square Press, New York, 1994.

Langer, William L., “Infanticide: A Historical Survey,” History of Childhood Quarterly, vol 1, pp. 353-365, 1974.

Lecky, William Edward Hartpole, A History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne, Longmans, Green, and Company, London, 1869, vol II.

Lee, Richard B., and Richard Daly, eds., The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1999.

Lee, Richard B., The Dobe !Kung, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1979.

Lemish, Michael G., War Dogs, Brassey’s, Washington, D.C., 1996.

Leopold, Aldo, A Sand County Almanac, 1949, Reprint, Oxford University Press, New York, 1989.

Levy, Stuart B., M.D., The Antibiotic Paradox, Second Edition, Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2002.

Liebenberg, Louis, “Persistence Hunting by Modern Hunter-Gatherers,” Current Anthropology, Volume 47, Number 6, December 2006.

Liebenberg, Louis, The Art of Tracking, David Philip Publishers, Claremont, South Africa, 1990.  LINK

Liebenberg, Louis, The Origin of Science, CyberTracker, Cape Town, South Africa, 2013.  LINK

Liedloff, Jean, The Continuum Concept In Search of Happiness Lost, Addison-Wesley, New York, 1977.

Liesowska, Anna, “First glimpse inside the Siberian cave that holds the key to man’s origins,” The Siberian Times, 28 July 2015.  LINK

Lillard, Richard G., The Great Forest, Knopf, New York, 1947.

Little, Charles E., The Dying of the Trees, Viking, New York, 1995.

Livingston, John A., “John A. Livingston,” Jensen, Derrick, ed., Listening to the Land, Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, 1995.

Livingston, John A., Rogue Primate, Roberts Rinehart Publishers, Boulder, Colorado, 1994.

Livingston, John A., The John A. Livingston Reader, McClelland & Stewart, Toronto, 2007.

Loh, Jules, Lords of the Earth: A History of the Navajo Indians, Macmillan, New York, 1971.

Lopez, Barry, Of Wolves and Men, 1978, Reprint, Scribner Classics, New York, 2004. 

Lowdermilk, Walter Clay, Conquest of the Land Through Seven Thousand Years, 1948, Reprint, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C., 1999.  LINK

Macleish, William H., The Day Before America, Houghton Mifflin, New York, 1994.

MacKinnon, J. B., The Once and Future World, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, New York, 2013.

Mallet, Paul Henri, Northern Antiquities, 1770, Reprint, AMS Press, New York, 1968.

Malthus, Thomas, Essay on the Principle of Population, 1798, Reprint, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008.

Marsh, George Perkins. Man and Nature, Charles Scribner, New York, 1864.

Manning, Richard, Against the Grain: How Agriculture has Hijacked Civilization, North Point Press, New York, 2004.

Manning, Richard, Food’s Frontier: The Next Green Revolution, North Point Press, New York, 2000.

Manning, Richard, Grassland, Viking, New York, 1995.

Manning, Richard, “Graze Anatomy,” www.onearth.org (extinct), August 26, 2010.  LINK

Manning, Richard, “The Oil We Eat,” Harpers, February 2004.  LINK

Marks, Geoffrey, and William K. Beatty, Epidemics.  Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1976.

Marsh, George Perkins, Man and Nature, Charles Scribner, New York, 1864. 

Martin, Paul, Twilight of the Mammoths, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2005. 

McAuliffe, Kathleen, “If Modern Humans Are So Smart, Why Are Our Brains Shrinking?” Discover Magazine, September 2010.  LINK

McClintock, Walter, The Old North Trail, MacMillan and Co., 1910.

McGuire, William and Hull, R. F. C., eds., C. G. Jung Speaking, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1977.

McKibben, Bill, Falter, Henry Holt and Company, New York, 2019.

McLaughlin, Kathleen, “Exploding demand for cashmere wool is ruining Mongolia’s grasslands,” Science, 30 January, 2019.  doi:10.1126/science.aaw8397

McLynn, Frank, Carl Gustav Jung, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1997. 

McMichael, A. J., et al. editors, Climate Change and Human Health: Risks and Responses, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2003.

McNeel, Jack, “The Bravery of the Buffalo Runners: Providing for the Tribe,” Indian Country Today, July 8, 2014.  LINK

McNeill, J. R., Something New Under the Sun, W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2000.

McNeill, J. R., “The First Hundred Thousand Years,” Uekotter, Frank, ed., The Turning Points of Environmental History, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, 2010.

McNeill, J. R., and Peter Engelke, The Great Acceleration, Belknap Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2014.

McNeill, J. R., and William H. McNeill, The Human Web, W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2003.

McNeill, William H., “How the Potato Changed the World’s History,” Social Research, Vol 66, No 1, Spring 1999, pp 67-83.

McNeill, William H., Plagues and Peoples, 1976, Reprint, Anchor Books, New York, 1998.

Melville, Elinor, A Plague of Sheep, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1994.

Metzner, Ralph, The Well of Remembrance, Shambhala Publications, Boston, 1994.

Mintz, Sidney W., Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History, Penguin Books, New York, 1985.

Moberg, Vilhelm, A History of the Swedish People: From Prehistory to the Renaissance, Pantheon Books, New York, 1970.

Monbiot, George, Feral: Searching for Enchantment on the Frontiers of Rewilding, Allen Lane, London, 2013.

Moor, Edward, Hindu Infanticide, J. Johnson and Company, London, 1811.

Morgan, Tim, “Perfect Storm: Energy, Finance, and the End of Growth, Strategy Insights,” Issue Nine, Tullett Prebon, January 2013.  LINK

Morris, Eric, “Horse Power to Horsepower,” Access, Number 30, Spring 2007.  LINK

Montgomery, David R., Dirt: The Erosion of Civilizations, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2007.

Montgomery, Sy, Spell of the Tiger, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1995.

“Mortality Of Abandoned Infants Before And After The Appearance Of Foundling Homes In The Thirteenth Century,” Pediatrics, September 1990, 86 (3) A66; LINK

Mowat, Farley, The Desperate People, Bantam Doubleday Dell, New York, 1981.

Muir, Diana, Reflections in Bullough’s Pond: Economy and Ecosystem in New England, University Press of New England, Hanover, New Hampshire, 2000.

Munch, Peter Andreas, Norse Mythology, 1840, Reprint, AMS Press, New York, 1970.

Nabokov, Peter, Indian Running, Ancient City Press, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1981.

Nelson, Richard K., Make Prayers to the Raven, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1983.

Nelson, Richard K., “Searching for the Lost Arrow,” Kellert, Stephen R., and Edward O. Wilson, eds., The Biophilia Hypothesis, Island Press, Washington, 1993.

Nissen, Hans J., The Early History of the Ancient Near East 9000–2000 B.C., University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1988.

Nohl, Johannes, The Black Death, 1926, Reprint, Unwin Books, London, 1971.

Öcalan, Abdullah, Liberating Life: Woman’s Revolution, 2d ed., Mesopotamian Publishers, Neuss, Germany, 2017.  LINK 

Öcalan, Abdullah, Prison Writings: The Roots of Civilization, Pluto Press, London, 2007.

Olsen, Sandra L., “Pleistocene Horse-hunting at Solutre,” Johnson, E., ed., Ancient Peoples and Landscapes, Museum of Texas Tech University, Lubbock, 1995, pp. 65-75.

Olson, Miles, Unlearn, Rewild, New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada, 2012.

Owen, James, “Extinct Giant Deer Survived Ice Age, Study Says,” National Geographic News, October 6, 2004.

Peacock, Doug, In the Shadow of the Sabertooth, Counterpunch, Petrolia, California, 2014. 

Perlin, John, A Forest Journey: The Role of Wood in the Development of Civilization, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1989.

Plumwood, Val, The Eye of the Crocodile, edited by Lorraine Shannon, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 2012.  LINK

Plumwood, Val, “Prey to a Crocodile.” Aisling, Issue 30, Beltane 2002.  LINK

Pollan, Michael, The Omnivores Dilemma, Penguin Press, New York, 2006.

Polo, Marco, and Rustichello of Pisa, The Travels of Marco Polo, ca. 1300, Reprint, Project Gutenberg, 2004.

Ponting, Clive, A New Green History of the World, Penguin Books, New York, 2007.

Ponting, Clive, The Twentieth Century: A World History, Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1999.

Postel, Sandra, Pillar of Sand, W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 1999.

Postel, Sandra, “Water: Adapting to a New Normal,” Heinberg, Richard and Daniel Lerch, eds, The Post Carbon Reader, Watershed Media, Healdsburg, California, 2010.  LINK

Powell, Nick Clarke (director), Decoding Neanderthals, Nova/PBS, Arrow International Media, London, 2013.

Price, Weston, Nutrition and Physical Degeneration, 1939, Reprint, Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation, La Mesa, California, 2008.

Pyne, Stephen J., Fire: A Brief History, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 2001.

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Wild Free and Happy Sample 46

 

[Note: This is the forty-sixth sample from my rough draft of a far from finished new book, Wild, Free, & Happy.  The Search field on the right side will find words in the full contents of all rants and reviews.  These samples are not freestanding pieces.  They will be easier to understand if you start with sample 01, and follow the sequence listed HERE — if you happen to have some free time.  If you prefer audiobooks, Michael Dowd is in the process of reading and recording my book HERE.

WHO ARE WE?

Life in the Wild Lane

Over a long span of time, our minds, bodies, emotions, and instincts were given form on tropical savannahs.  Like our savannah ancestors, you and I are social animals, and we do best in small groups, where we can maintain ongoing personal relationships with all the others.  Many wild folks likely spent their entire lives without seeing a stranger.  For them, exposure to dense crowds of odd-looking, odd-smelling, odd-sounding strangers would have been terrifying.

On the day of your birth, you did not squirt out of momma’s womb with credit cards, car keys, and a cell phone.  You were a wild animal that evolution had fine-tuned for a wholesome life of hunting, scavenging, and gathering in a tropical wilderness.  You were fully expecting to be welcomed into a kind and caring tribe — an egalitarian culture of anarchist singers, dancers, and nature lovers.  You were not expecting to squirt into the frightening bright lights of a totally insane planet-thrashing civilization, condemned to a life sentence without parole.

You were expecting to spend your entire life out of doors, in a thriving ecosystem where humans were a wee minority group in the family of critters.  You enjoyed frequently seeing, hearing, and smelling your wild non-human neighbors throughout every day.  Many of these neighbors were good to eat, and some of them would eagerly leap at any opportunity to tear you to bloody shreds and ravenously feast on your yummy flesh.  Survival required paying acute attention to reality at all times.

Paul Shepard wrote that for three million years, our wild hominin ancestors were “few in number, sensitive to the seasons and other life, humble in attitude toward the Earth, and comfortable as one species among many.”

It Takes a Village

Soon after birth, many animal species are capable of skills like walking, running, swimming, climbing, and feeding themselves.  This is not true for humans, because we are an experiment to see what might happen if tropical primates were allowed to evolve unusually swollen brains.  This project required some tweaks. 

The birth canal from mom’s uterus to her vagina passes through an opening in the pelvis, and this opening is too small to allow the passage of a fetus with a more fully developed brain.  Consequently, humans are born long before we are capable of functioning unassisted.  Because we are helpless for an extended period, we require a lot of attention from mommy, daddy, and the surrounding tribe.  Many observers have reported that wild people did an above average job of raising children.

Jean Liedloff spent two and a half years living with wild people in a Venezuelan jungle, while occasionally zipping back and forth to big city America, two cultures that could not possibly be more different.  The wild folks were generally a kind and cheerful bunch.  But every time she stepped off a plane in America, she would immediately be jolted by how strikingly unhappy people appeared.  Why?  This question eventually inspired her to become a therapist, and the author of an awesome book.

Our months in the womb were very safe and comfortable, the most peaceful period in our journey.  Liedloff described how tribal folks made the transition to life in the outer world as pleasant as possible.  From the moment of their birth, newborns were held and nursed and loved — and this warm, secure, continuous contact lasted until the infant indicated that it was ready to begin the creeping and crawling phase.  Raised in this manner, wild kids lived with a sense of wellbeing that might last throughout their entire lives.  They were well-adjusted and happy.  Life was good.

On the other hand, in the big city realm, the bright and noisy world outside the womb could be a rather unpleasant place, sometimes hellish.  Newborns were hustled away to a nursery, where they could cry by themselves until they ran out of tears.  The sense of wellbeing disintegrated, and some of the infants never again recovered it. 

Civilized folks, who spend their lives isolated in climate controlled cubicles, with state of the art entertainment systems, often have to buy books to learn how to raise a kid.  Liedloff detested these <spit!> horrid books.  She wrote that if parents followed the printed instructions, they would “produce children they cannot love, who grow up like themselves, anti-self, antisocial, incapable of giving, destined forever to go hungry.” 

Phases of Development

During our life journey, we pass through four developmental phases.  In any society, a child’s physical and emotional needs are different from those of an adolescent, adult, or elder.  In any region of the world, everyone’s body physically changes through these four phases.  No matter what culture we live in, our bodies will automatically proceed from one phase to the next as we meander through the years of our lives.

On the other hand, it’s very important to understand that our emotional development is never guaranteed to automatically proceed from one phase to the next.  You cannot smoothly advance into adolescence emotionally until you successfully acquire the emotional skills of childhood.  This is true for every transition through the four phases.  Each must be completed before moving up to the next — but this doesn’t always happen. 

Emotional development can get permanently stuck in one phase, even as the years and decades keep passing.  Thus, you can have infantile adults, gray haired adolescents, and other victims of arrested development.  Many may never develop a mature sense of social responsibility or emotional stability.  This is especially common in complex societies, which have a long reputation for being incubators of mental deformities.  Evolution didn’t prepare us for living in crowded, sprawling, synthetic habitats.

It takes about 20 years for a newborn to fully develop the body and brain of an adult.  We did not squirt out of mom’s womb with a comprehensive understanding of how to effortlessly glide through our joyride to the finish line.  Luckily, we are social animals, and if we had been lucky enough to be born into a healthy wild society, the community would have provided us with timely and competent mentoring.  Folks born into complex societies, like ours, are often not so lucky.

Especially critical are the transitions from one phase to the next.  For example, a child does not instinctively know how to gracefully move through the whirlwinds of puberty and then smoothly flow into a delightful adolescence.  Rites of initiation are ceremonies that explore the wisdom of cultural stories, and provide important instructions for social behavior, conflict avoidance, and other core issues.  When a safety net of support is provided, transitions can be much easier.  These communities are more likely to nurture the blossoming of sane, competent, well-adjusted people.  Modern communities do a far sloppier job of providing guidance and support.

We are now about to take a quick peek at the phases of development.  Paul Shepard devoted a lot of attention to this subject in four of his books, especially Nature and Madness.  He wore a critic’s hat, and focused his flame thrower on how civilized cultures achieved great advances in self-destruction, producing hordes of obedient grunts to crank the wheels of the machine, and build the palaces, while rubbishing the ecosystem.  His writing emits a sharp aroma of extensive learning and intense brainpower, but it’s not a breeze to read.  His career didn’t include intimate long-term experiences in wild cultures.

Among my all-time favorite books is The Human Cycle, by Colin Turnbull, a gentle soul and careful writer.  This book focused on how different cultures guided their people through the transitions of life’s journey.  Turnbull was raised in a pathetically dysfunctional family and peer group (upper class Britain).  Later in life he deeply enjoyed spending lots of time with the Mbuti Pygmies, who celebrated life in the Ituri rainforest of Zaire.  For many thousands of years they were a happy and sustainable society — until paradise turned into a war zone and logging camp.  Turnbull shared fascinating descriptions of both wonderful and wonky cultures.  He gave us a delicious glimpse of how our ancestors may have lived in the good old days.

The following comments are a generic overview.  They do not describe universal practices that are exactly the same in all societies.  Humans have created countless unique cultures over many thousands of years.  Each attempted to guide folks through their life journey, in a wide variety of ways, with mixed results.

CHILDHOOD.  Childhood is the thrilling and confusing era of intense change that spans between birthday and puberty.  For their first three years, all Mbuti infants remained in constant contact with their mothers, which provided a heavenly bonding experience.  This prepared the infant for becoming a confident and competent social being during the rest of its life. 

On the other hand, in Turnbull’s upper class Britain (and throughout much of the civilized world), the mother-infant relationship was far less intimate and comforting.  Turnbull was raised by a long series of nannies.  Because of the terribly dangerous health risks of breastfeeding, his mother did not nurse him.  His brother had different nannies, and lived in the same house, but the two never met until Colin was 6, and they shared a hotel room.  With great excitement, they eagerly conversed, until mom discovered the mistake.  Rich people can sometimes be oddballs.  Colin begged gypsies to kidnap him, but they refused.

Carleton Coon wrote that the Andaman islanders nursed their young until the age of 3 or 4.  The hungry little milk lovers were passed around, and suckled by all lactating women.  Shepard noted that when the infant’s bond with mother was properly formed, it encouraged the potential for intellectual and emotional growth.  But if this bonding was dodgy, the damage done could sometimes have lifelong impact.

As the infant eventually learned to speak, crawl, and explore, it became less dependent on mother.  This began at around age three.  For the next nine years or so, until the onset of puberty at 12 or so, it was an amazing time of discovery.  In wild cultures, these nine years were a time window for the absolutely vital process of forming healthy bonds with nature, in all its diversity.  During this experience, kids absorbed the richness of the natural order — animals, insects, plants, storms, stars, aromas, colors, sounds — the sacred wonderland of creation, home sweet home!

Imagine a catfish that paid little attention to the other living things in the lake — a fish that was raised in a radicalized catfish supremacy cult, believed that the creator of the universe was a catfish, and the only thing that mattered was the prosperity of catfish.  How weird would that be?  Unfortunately, many modern folks, eyes riveted to glowing screens, or confined in speeding vehicles, never experience a full immersion baptism in wild nature (like a catfish without a lake).  For them, nature is merely static scenery along the highway.  Boring and meaningless.

Wild kids spent lots of time watching the “others” (non-human animals), learned their names, categorized them, imitated them, and studied their anatomy when butchered.  Kids knew the daily and seasonal patterns of the others, and watched them move through their life cycle, from youngsters to oldsters.  Kids developed a strong feeling of kinship with them.

Hunting was a core component of our wild ancestors’ lives.  Folks accumulated enormous amounts of knowledge about tracking and animal behavior.  Our brains evolved, over hundreds of thousands of years, in wild Stone Age cultures.  What you and I are today is a direct result of this very long, beautiful, and deeply intimate wild relationship, despite the fact that it is largely absent in the culture that currently suffocates us.

In an interview with Derrick Jensen, John Livingston shed more light on the process of bonding with nature.  A newborn human is an incredibly flexible animal, capable of fully adapting to the worldviews, religions, lifestyles, and languages of a vast spectrum of cultures, from “primitive” to “advanced,” anywhere in the world. 

Thus, a primary component of childhood is open-mindedness, a mindset in which they are free and eager to explore all possibilities.  So, for youngsters who have access to wild nature, and who have a tingling curiosity to explore big magic, it’s perfectly normal, healthy, and life enhancing to form emotional and spiritual bonds with the family of life.  If the bond with nature doesn’t form by age 12 or so, it’s likely that it never will, but not impossible.

In the ghoulish world of deepest, darkest couch potato suburbia, nature has been reduced to something that folks passively watch on gigantic flat screen TVs, while gobbling cheese doodles and guzzling fizzy sugar water.  The normal around-the-clock stimulation of wildness, that every animal needs, is absent.  Children are denied the vital education provided by the daily affairs of the family of life.  They are hobbled by what Richard Louv would diagnose as Nature Deficit Disorder (NDD).

Stan Rowe called it EDD (Earth Deficiency Disease), a devastating disconnection from the meaning of life.  EDD children tend to form bonds with machines, not nature.  He estimated that consumers spend 95 percent of their lives indoors.  Children are often kept under house arrest, because parents fear that going outdoors is too dangerous.  The poor kids share some similarities with the homeless wild animals imprisoned in zoos.  Rowe wrote, “Our two best doctors are our legs.”  He hated cities.  “The city is an unhealthy place for those who want to come home at least once before they die.” 

In modern cultures, a major shift follows the open-minded curiosity of childhood.  It is the dawn of a long era of tedious work, responsibilities, challenges, and annoyances.  For this reason, Turnbull noted that we romanticize our childhood, a golden age of innocence and joy.  The Mbuti did not idolize childhood, “because, for them, the world has remained a place of wonder, and the older they get the greater the wonder.”  They bonded beautifully with nature, their forest home was sacred, and the source of all goodness.  When they moved through the forest, they sang to it.  They referred to it as mother, father, or both.  Life was good.

By the arrival of puberty, wild children were well rooted in place, feeling at-one with the flora and fauna that surrounded them.  They had developed a profoundly important spiritual connection to life.  Florence Shepard, Paul’s wife, said it like this: “At the heart of our identity is a fundamentally wild being, one who finds in the whole of wild nature all that is true and beautiful in this world.”

PUBERTY.  Oh-oh!  Somewhere around 12 or so, the path begins to get slippery, anxious, and exciting.  Welcome to puberty, girls and boys!  Puberty is the kickoff for adolescence, which is the bridge between childhood and maturity.  For females, adolescence is generally the years between 12 and 20; and for males, 14 to 25.  Puberty is time to say goodbye to the sweet and easy innocence of childhood, and undergo a transformation into sexual beings.

In Mbuti country, the all-knowing adult community was fully prepared to launch into the traditional rituals and ceremonies that are among the most important events in life, according to Turnbull.  These are the rites of initiation.  Shepard noted that in various cultures, initiations often provided “ceremonies that include separation from family, instruction by elders, tests of endurance and pain, trials of solitude, visions, dreams, and rituals of rebirth.”

For Mbuti girls, the puberty alarm clock rings with a dramatic event, the passing of their first blood.  It was time for initiation.  Often the community waited until more than one girl was ready.  The girls were then moved to the special elima house, where they changed their attire, announcing that they were no longer children.  Boys were allowed to visit, and there was sexual play, but it never led to pregnancy.  Girls and boys learned new songs and sang them together. 

At puberty, boys were not awakened by a bloody alarm.  Every two or three years, adults selected a group of boys between ages 9 and 11 for initiation.  For Mbuti kids, who sleep in small huts near mom and dad, the mechanics of sex were no mystery at all.  Initiation was the time to learn about lots of important stuff beyond the huffing and puffing, including the social responsibilities of adulthood.  The strategy here was that the boys would learn — in advance — the possible consequences of what mom and dad did in the dark.   

For the Mbuti, initiation led to the emergence of “a fully integrated self.”  Me and my classmates seem to have passed through puberty in a fairly dis-integrated manner.  For our ersatz initiation, we were more or less hurled off the end of the dock into deep water (note the high teen pregnancy rates).  For more than a few, emotional development got stuck in adolescence (note the numerous struggling adults in our society who are the opposite of well-adjusted and fully integrated).

If there was just one idea that Turnbull could send you away with, it would be this: no culture handles puberty and adolescence as poorly as ours.  “The consequences of our folly are to be seen all around us in the violence, neuroses, and loneliness of our youth, our adults, and aged.”  Some never come close to having a full or rich life. 

Shepard would be quick to add that this culture is also demented because of our disconnection from wildness and nature, our domestication of plants and animals, our conversion of ecosystems into cropland and crowded urban nightmares, the exploitive and oppressive hierarchies including patriarchy, and on and on.  This is not a good path.

ADOLESCENCE.  With the transition into adolescence, the time window for the free-flowing open-mindedness of childhood tends to draw closed.  It becomes time to put on cultural blinders, and become fully immersed in our tribal identity.  This is something like the process of how wet pourable concrete inevitably becomes rigid, strong, and permanent.  The worldview, beliefs, and values of your culture become deeply imprinted infallible truths, a mindset you carry to the end of your days (usually).

If you were a wild, free, and happy Mbuti, this transition was perfectly normal, healthy, and beneficial — an essential step on the path to maturity.  Throughout adolescence, the bonds with nature continued expanding and deepening — the Mbuti never outgrew their sacred relationship with the family of life.

If you are a citizen of industrial civilization, its ersatz initiation process leads to a far different outcome.  Compulsory education extends from childhood into the years of adolescence.  In my youth, busloads of kids my age were separated from society for seven or eight hours a day, so we could be rigorously trained in the myths of our culture, and the skills essential for full time employment.  We were trained to become aggressive, status-seeking, narrowly focused achievers.  Upon graduation, we were set free to join the voracious locust swarms of consumers.

Turnbull received his public education at Westminster, a prestigious school, where students had their brains filled with knowledge, in an efficient assembly line process.  Intellectual skills, like competency in critical thinking, were not part of the curriculum.  He had nothing nice to say about the abominable experience, only this: “It would have been good training for a life in prison.”

In Mbuti culture, following their initiation, the new adults did an excellent job of reintegrating with the community — almost all spent the rest of their days living among their friends and kinfolk.  They didn’t banish themselves to faraway places, never to return.  Notably, their community was stable, closely bonded, and highly supportive.

Rites of initiation are traditionally a three-step process: (1) separation from the community, (2) preparation for adulthood, and (3) reincorporation into society as an adult.  Industrial culture commonly omits the last step.  Many of our successful graduates are blasted out of a cannon into the outer world, to attend university, pursue a career, enlist in the military, or whatever.  Turnbull complained that many of our adolescents actually “expect and want a permanent separation” from the community they grew up in, because they seek “freedom.”  They scatter to the winds like tumbleweeds, and many are never seen again.

Like Turnbull, Shepard also loathed our culture’s assembly line for manufacturing adults, most of whom never formed close bonds with nature.  Most were likely to imprint that normality was largely non-living, and that humans were the only beings that were truly alive.  They internalize chaos, and when it’s time to master social relations, they are not prepared.  Shepard wrote, “The only society more fearful than one run by children might be one run by childish adults.”

[Continued in sample #47]

NOTE: Since the last post, this blog crossed a threshold.  As of this morning, it has now had 504,603 views!  Thank you!  I’m glad that my work is useful to some.  On to a million…